Algorithmic trading is done through investment strategies that are fully automated when it comes to research and execution of trades. In this guide, we will review and rank the best algorithmic trading platforms in the market. Apart from the basics, we will explain how each platform works and its pros and cons.
Algorithmic trading systems use a rule-based system that includes choosing trading instruments, managing risk, finding opportunities, and dynamically adjusting the position size. However, choosing a trading platform for algorithmic trading can be a complex process.
- Algorithmic trading combines computer programming and financial markets to execute trades at precise, timed moments.
- There are several algorithmic trading strategies, such as arbitrage opportunities, trend-following strategies, and index fund rebalancing.
- Algorithmic trading can also be executed based on trading volume or the passage of time.
- To begin algorithmic trading, you must have access to a computer, an internet connection, knowledge of the financial markets, and coding capabilities.
Best Algorithmic Trading Platforms 2024
Before we go any further, here is our list of the best algorithmic trading platforms of 2024.
- eToro Copy Trading – Overall, the best algorithmic trading platform
- Oil Profit – Excellent algorithmic trading software for commodities
- NFT Profit – Algorithmic trading platform for NFT derivatives
- Bitcoin Prime – Top-rated algorithmic crypto trading platform for CFDs
- Kalshi – Highly regulated algorithmic trading platform allowing users to trade on global trends
- NAGA – Online broker with copy trading tools
- Teslacoin – Leading Bitcoin algorithmic trading platform for cryptocurrencies
- Bitcode AI – One of the best Bitcoin algorithmic trading platforms for beginners
- Ava Mirror Trader – CFD platform with algorithmic trading software
- Bitcoin Era – Beginner-friendly algorithmic trading platform
- Immediate Edge – Algorithmic trading platform designed for cryptocurrencies
75% of retail investor accounts lose money when trading CFDs with this provider.
What Is Algorithmic Trading?
Algorithmic trading involves executing orders using automated, pre-programmed trading instructions to account for price, timing, and trading volume. In such trading, computer algorithms send small portions of the full trading order to the market over time. Algorithmic trading uses complex formulas, mathematical models, and human oversight to buy or sell financial securities on a trading exchange.
Traders can use high-frequency trading technology to enable firms to make thousands of trades per second. Algorithmic trading can be used in several situations, such as arbitrage, order execution, and trend trading strategies. Algorithms in trading became popular after the introduction of computerized trading systems. The New York Stock Exchange introduced the Designated Order Turnaround (DOT) system in 1976. This system routed orders from traders to specialists on the exchange floor.
Over the next few decades, exchanges began accepting electronic trading. By 2009, over 60% of all trades in the US were executed by computers. This figure is even higher now.
How Does Algorithmic Trading Work?
Let’s understand how algorithmic trading works with the help of a simple example. Suppose a trader follows the following criteria. Buy 50 shares of a stock when its 50-day moving average pushes above the 200-day moving average. Sell shares of the stock when its 50-day moving average falls below the 200-day moving average. A moving average refers to the average of past data points, smoothing out day-to-day price fluctuations and identifying trends.
Using these simple instructions a computer program will automatically monitor the stock price and moving average indicators. It will also place the buy and sell orders when the defined conditions are met. This means the trader can monitor live prices and graphs sparingly. Instead, the algorithmic system does it automatically by identifying trading and selling opportunities.
Advantages And Disadvantages Of Algorithmic Trading
Now, let’s look at some advantages and disadvantages of algorithmic trading.
- Low Latency: Trade order placement is instant and accurate. The trades are timed instantly to avoid significant price surges.
- No Human Error: Because there is no human hand, algorithmic trading has a reduced risk of human error when placing trades. It also negates a trader’s risk of being swayed by psychological and emotional factors.
- Backtesting: Algorithmic trading can also be backtested using available historical and real-time data to check if it is a viable strategy.
- Best Execution: Trades are executed at the best prices.
- Latency: Algorithmic trading depends on quick execution speeds and low latency. If a trade is not executed quickly enough, it may result in losses and missed opportunities.
- Technology: Algorithmic trading also heavily depends on technology, such as complex computer programs and high-speed internet connections. If there is any technical issue, it could lead to losses.
- Market Impact: Large algorithmic trades can have a significant impact on the market. This could result in losses for traders who cannot adjust their trades in response. Algorithmic trading has also been known to increase market volatility and even lead to flash crashes.
- Black Swan Events: Algorithmic trading relies on historical data and mathematical models to predict future market movements. However, unforeseen market events could occur, leading to losses for algorithmic traders.
- Regulation: Algorithmic trading is subject to considerable regulatory requirements and oversight. These can be complicated and time-consuming to comply with.
- High Capital Costs: Algorithmic trading systems are expensive to deploy and maintain. As a result, traders may have to pay fees for software maintenance and data feeds.
- No Human Judgment: Algorithmic trading primarily relies on historical data and mathematical models. It does not take into account qualitative and subjective factors that could influence market movements. This lack of human judgment is a disadvantage, especially for traders who prefer an intuitive approach to trading.
Best Algorithmic Trading Platforms Reviewed
Now, let’s look at each of the algorithmic trading platforms mentioned in our list in a little more detail.
1. eToro – Best Algorithmic Trading Platforms
eToro is our pick for the best algorithmic trading platform. It is a leading online trading platform and investment app used by over 30 million users. The platform features one of the most diverse selections of markets, including stocks, ETFs, indices, metals, agricultural products, and other commodities. Users on the platform can also invest in over 60 cryptocurrencies and trade forex currency pairs.
One of the eToro’s most popular features is copy trading. Copy trading allows users to mirror the trades and positions of professional traders on the platform. Copy trading is entirely automated, with the copied trades and positions instantly replicated.
Traders can choose the trader they wish to copy based on the level of risk they wish to take, performance history, and more. They can also control their positions and set stop-loss levels. Alternatively, traders can also copy the stop-loss parameters set by the trader they copy.
Fees & Other Features
Once an account is created on eToro, you can start copy trading at no extra cost. The minimum investment required to begin copy trading is $200. What’s more, you can stop copy trading at any time. The minimum deposit for regular trading on eToro is just $10. Other than copy trading, eToro also lets traders automate investments through Smart Portfolios.
Smart Portfolios are a diversified basket of assets like stocks and cryptocurrencies regularly balanced by the eToro team. All you need to do is invest in one of the relevant portfolios, and the rest of the trading process will be taken care of automatically,
eToro is considered a highly reliable broker for several reasons, such as security, regulation, and low trading fees. A number of financial regulatory bodies, such as the SEC, FCA, CySEC, and ASIC, regulate the brokerage. The platform also offers a demo account where traders can test trading strategies before deploying them.
Copy Trading does not amount to investment advice. The value of your investments may go up or down. Your capital is at risk.
2. Oil Profit – An excellent algorithmic trading software for commodities
There are several algorithmic trading platforms designed for stocks and cryptocurrencies. However, finding one specifically for oil is a tough task. This is where Oil Profit comes in. The main point of consideration is that several global and political developments influence oil prices. This is why you need a platform that has a specifically designed algorithm for oil.
Oil Profit is one such platform and is considered one of the best algorithmic trading platforms for oil. Traders on the platform can place automated trades with the help of AI. Additionally, the platform does not charge any deposit fees or commissions when using the platform.
As a new trader on the platform, account creation takes minutes, and you can start trading as soon as you deposit $250 into your trading account. However, it isn’t clear what type of customization is provided by its algorithmic trading software when setting trading strategies.
3. NFT Profit – Algorithmic trading platform for NFT derivatives
The next platform on our list of best algorithmic trading platforms is NFT Profit. At one point, NFTs were considered as one of the hottest assets in the crypto space. While their value may have taken a downturn in recent times, there is no doubt they will make a comeback. NFT Profit allows you to capitalize on the NFT investment scene through NFT derivatives. It is also one of only a handful of algorithmic trading platforms that give you access to the NFT ecosystem.
NFT Profit’s algorithmic trading software uses an innovative solution to facilitate investment in NFTs. The platform first uses trader funds to acquire Ethereum (ETH), which is then used to purchase NFTs. However, one drawback of the NFT Profit platform is that it does not offer much customization.
To register on NFT Profit, you must submit your email address, phone number, and phone number. As with most algorithmic trading platforms, traders must deposit a minimum investment account. This amount on the NFT Profit platform is $250. Once you have deposited the amount, you will be connected to an account manager, who will guide you through the trading process.
4. Bitcoin Prime – Top-rated algorithmic crypto trading platform for CFDs
The Bitcoin Prime algorithmic trading platform allows you to trade several digital assets. It also supports several cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin (BTC), Bitcoin Cash (BCH), Ethereum (ETH), Cardano (ADA), Neo, Binance Coin, and several others. Moreover, Bitcoin Prime also offers high-frequency trading and quick execution of orders.
Like other platforms on our list of best algorithmic trading platforms, Bitcoin Prime also requires you to deposit $250 to begin trading. This is the only prerequisite condition on the platform. Apart from this, users on the platform do not need to pay any deposit fees or commissions. Additionally, you also get access to an advanced trading platform with optimal customization.
5. Kalshi – Highly regulated algorithmic trading platform allowing users to trade on global trends
Kalshi algorithmic trading platform was founded in 2018 by MIT graduates. It can be described as a highly beginner-friendly trading platform that allows users to take our contract betting on the outcome of global events. Kalshi got approval as an Authorized Designated Contract Market (DCM) by the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC) in 2020. This makes it the first-ever regulated exchange for trading event contracts.
Users on the platform can take out contracts for as little as $0.01 to $0.99. They can also bet on the outcome of global events related to economics and geopolitics. Traders on the platform can also buy or sell contracts while predicting if a certain event will occur. For example, you can take out a contract that predicts the temperature of a specific place would increase or decrease.
Kalshi also allows traders to hold positions at the end of the trading day. If these positions have a favorable outcome, they can earn $1 on each contract they have taken. Traders can also sell their contracts before the end of the trading day if their prediction is generating a live profit.
Kalshi is an excellent platform for beginners and does not require any minimum deposit to begin trading. There is also no margin or leverage trading, which helps limit losses. Since traders can sell their contracts at any point, the platform maintains extremely high liquidity levels. Additionally, inexperienced traders can learn about the markets and basic terms in the market, such as order books, event contracts, and more, through the platform’s blog.
When it comes to security, Kalshi deposits several surveillance systems to detect any fraudulent activity. The platform puts a high emphasis on security because it is a heavily regulated platform. Funds are stored in different accounts by regulated clearing houses and can be accessed instantly whenever a user requests a withdrawal.
6. NAGA – Online broker with copy trading tools
NAGA is the ideal algorithmic trading platform for those seeking a minimalistic provider and experience. The broker gives traders on the platform access to over 950 assets and markets via CFDs. Additionally, it also offers 0% commission when it comes to stock trading.
The platform’s copy trading tool uses an automated mechanism. Thanks to its copy trading feature, you can choose an investor you wish to follow and mirror trades. When putting down a stake, you can put down a fixed investment amount or a percentage from your account balance. The platform also sends out real-time notifications when trades are carried out.
NAGA requires a minimum stake of just $0.99 per slide. Regarding payment methods, it accepts payments through credit/debit cards, Skrill, and Neteller.
7. TeslaCoin – Leading Bitcoin algorithmic trading platform for cryptocurrencies
TeslaCoin is the next platform on our list of best algorithmic trading platforms. At first glance, the platform is highly similar to other algorithmic trading platforms that we have reviewed so far.
However, the platform is different from the others on our list because it uses its native cryptocurrency, TeslaCoin or TES. Simply put, all user funds on the platform are held in TES coins and not USD.
Additionally, you can also access several cryptocurrencies through the platform. These include Bitcoin (BTC), Ethereum (ETH), Dogecoin (DOGE), and several others. TeslaCoin primarily trades cryptocurrencies using CFDs. The platform is an excellent option for trading digital assets in the short term rather than investing long-term and HODL-ing.
8. Bitcode AI – CFD platform with algorithmic trading software
The Bitcode AI Algorithmic trading platform is advertised as a trading software dedicated to cryptocurrencies. The algorithmic trading software claims to be fully automated and uses a superior AI to help you trade passively through the platform.
Bitcode AI’s proprietary algorithm can scan the markets, gather valuable data, and make trading decisions on the trader’s behalf. According to the Bitcode AI website, traders don’t need to set parameters manually. However, traders can customize their trade settings should they wish to. If Bitcode AI’s claims are correct, it could be one of the best algorithmic trading platforms for beginners.
All users need to do is spend a few minutes on the Bitcode AI auto-trading platform per day and check their outstanding positions. However, our guide could not verify Bitcode AI’s trading software independently. The platform also claims to support over 20 prominent cryptocurrencies and also works with margin trading. (CFDs and perpetual futures pairs). The algorithmic trading platform also claims to work with several brokers to execute trades. However, there is little clarity on which exchanges are supported.
9. Ava Mirror Trader – Beginner-friendly algorithmic trading platform
AvaTrade is another one of the best algorithimic platforms and is widely regarded as one of the leading trading platforms, giving traders access to a number of markets. You can also use AvaTrade to trade stocks, forex, ETFs, and cryptocurrencies. All of these assets are traded in the form of CFDs. The platform also comes with several features, including algorithmic trading software, making the entire investment process smoother.
AvaTrade has two types of algorithmic trading systems in place. These are DupliTrade and ZuluTrade. DupliTrade is an MT-4 compatible platform that allows you to follow signals and strategies of other experienced traders, all in real time. On the other hand, ZuluTrade is an algorithmic trading software that converts expert recommendations, automatically executing them in the trading account.
AvaTrade has also created a platform that allows traders to interact directly with one another, called AvaSocial. AvaSocial allows traders to find mentors, interact with them, and mirror their trades.
10. Bitcoin Era – Algorithmic trading platform designed for cryptocurrencies
Bitcoin Era is the next platform on our list of best algorithmic trading platforms. The Bitcoin Era algo plaftom lets you speculate on the cryptocurrency and comes with automated software. As a result, it helps you to find profitable trades in the notoriously volatile crypto market.
Creating an account on Bitcoin Era is straightforward. However, registration slots are offered only on a lottery basis. As a result, those interested in trading on the platform might have to wait to register.
Bitcoin Era also offers a demo trading account that allows you to test trading strategies and get familiar with the platform. You can also set up customizable conditions for trading and deploy unique strategies.
Traders on the Bitcoin Era platform must verify their account to access its features. While traders can access the platform’s algorithmic trading feature without verification, verification is required for you to withdraw funds. Once you have created an account on the platform, you will be assigned a dedicated account manager to help you set up trades.
11. Immediate Edge – Algorithmic trading platform designed for cryptocurrencies
The last platform on our list of best algorithmic trading platforms is Immediate Edge. Immediate Edge is a top-rated algorithmic trading platform that boasts advanced trading software to automate investments. The platform primarily deals with crypto CFDs and supports several popular digital assets available in the market.
Immediate Edge boasts a fast trading system capable of placing 15 trades per minute. The Immediate Edge website states that traders on the platform can access leverage of up to 5000:1. This leverage is available when engaging in crypto algorithmic trading through the platform.
The Immediate Edge platform allows traders to set up their own parameters regarding when a particular trade should be executed. Once parameters are set, Immediate Edge searches the market for trading opportunities, executing them immediately.
Getting started on Immediate Edge is straightforward. Users can sign up on the platform and fund their account. However, like most platforms in our list, traders must deposit $250 to access its algorithmic trading software. All deposits are processed without any additional charges. Additionally, traders can make up to 10 free withdrawals per month.
Types Of Algo Trading Systems
Thanks to the growing demand for Algo trading systems, financial experts and developers have created innovative tools. These tools are designed to automate your investment decisions. This section of our guide will look at popular types of software available in the market. This would help you select the best algorithmic trading platform for your trading needs.
Several algorithmic trading platforms use signals as triggers to activate a buy or sell order. Trading signals are suggestions that alert traders of opportunities in the financial market. These recommendations could be based on a number of factors, such as human analysis and mathematical algorithms.
You can use algorithmic trading software that uses signals or manually execute positions based on these alerts. Like copy trading, signals are beneficial for both beginners and experienced traders.
However, signals are worth considering only if they are reliable. You must thoroughly research platforms before signing up for their alerts.
Copy trading is a strategy that allows you to mirror positions opened and closed by experienced traders. The Copy trading tool is primarily used by beginners who are inexperienced when it comes to placing trades. However, copy trading is also ideal for professional traders, allowing them to automate strategies. This means they can step away from the device if needed.
Several platforms offer copy trading. Our pick for the best copy trading platform is eToro. This broker gives traders information about the trader’s risk threshold and historical returns. This allows traders to choose a platform ideal for their finances and trading strategy. eToro also gives traders control of the trades they copy by using stop-loss orders. Traders can also stop the trading process at any point.
Let’s look at how copy trading works with the help of an example.
- Let’s assume you decide to invest $500 into an experienced trader on eToro after considerable research.
- The trader risks 20% of their portfolio on Ethereum (ETH) and Cardano (ADA).
- This will be reflected in your portfolio as well. Once the trader makes these investments, you will own $100 worth of Ethereum (20% of your portfolio) and $50 worth of Cardano (10% of your portfolio).
- The trader exits both positions at a profit of 40%.
- This means you have made a 40% profit on your stake as well.
Copy trading on eToro allows you to access automated investment strategies in a regulated environment. Once you have made your investments, you can earn passively while your chosen trader strategizes.
Algo Trading Platforms
An algorithmic trading platform executes transactions on behalf of investors. The platform scans the market for relevant trades, triggering them when specific conditions are met. Some platforms require traders to input parameters into the software, and most come with built-in strategies.
This means all traders must do is invest, and the algorithmic trading platform will handle the rest. Once the money is invested, platforms will scour through the available data and find the perfect time to exit positions with a profit.
Traders must also consider the past performances of platforms before investing in them.
Is Algorithmic Trading Profitable?
During its initial days, algorithmic trading was primarily used by institutional investors such as hedge funds. Today, however, algorithmic trading platforms are available for retail investors as well. The profitability of algorithmic trading depends on the strategies deployed and the platform being used. Let’s look at some of the advantages of algorithmic trading platforms that make them profitable.
A majority of algorithmic trading software comes with built-in programs. However, some platforms allow you to configure trading parameters by yourself. Let’s understand how with the help of an example.
- eToro allows you to follow any trader you select.
- However, you can set your own limits for stop-loss orders. You can also remove your funds whenever you want.
- Without customization, traders are restricted by the built-in functionality of the algorithmic trading platform.
- This is why it is advisable to select a platform that gives a degree of control over-trading.
However, traders must remember that algorithmic trading platforms are not transparent and don’t disclose much information about their algorithms. This is why it is advisable to proceed cautiously and use a regulated broker such as eToro.
Elimination Of Bias
Algorithmic trading requires each trade to be programmed. This allows traders to avoid reactionary buying and selling due to factors such as FOMO or emotions. This also eliminates human error, which could occur when placing a trade. Human error includes missing a zero or entering the incorrect stop-loss amount.
Backtesting refers to testing a strategy on historical data by evaluating the practicality and profitability of a trading plan. This helps determine if a strategy will work or fail based on previous market conditions. This helps traders avoid the hassle of guessing and making repeated mistakes. However, only some Algo trading software comes with historical data that can be used for backtesting.
Best Algorithmic Trading Strategies
Algorithmic trading platforms help simplify the trading journey in several ways. However, traders must understand the strategies followed by the trading algorithm and why the trades are being placed. For example, some algorithmic trading platforms execute orders based on a couple of basic indicators. However, innovative Algo trading software uses data from financial statements, using AI and Big Data to identify trading opportunities.
These are ideal for experienced investors familiar with sophisticated strategies and complex data. Let’s look at some of the commonly used Algo trading strategies.
- Trend Following Strategies – These strategies follow trends in price levels, moving averages, and related technical indicators.
- Arbitrage Trading Strategies – The arbitrage trading strategy opens long and short positions on two platforms that have quoted different prices for the same asset.
- Mathematical Model-Based Strategies – This strategy utilizes proven mathematical models to find profitable trades and opportunities.
- Index Arbitrage – This trading strategy takes advantage of the temporary mispricing of a particular asset. However, in this case, algorithmic trading platforms look for price differences between the equity and futures markets.
- Mean Revision Strategies – According to this trading strategy, prices tend to retreat to their average. It uses moving averages, oscillators, and market sentiments to spot extremes.
The strategies above are only a handful of algorithmic trading strategies that automated systems have deployed. Some strategies are simple, while others are complex and have a steep learning curve. If you are a beginner, it is advisable to adopt a simple strategy.
How To Start algorithmic Trading?
In this section of our guide on the best algorithmic trading platforms, we will discuss how to get started with algorithmic trading. For this example, we have used eToro as our platform of choice.
Step 1: Create An Account
The first step is to create an account on the platform. To do this, head to the eToro website and click on “Create Account.” You must provide your email address and assign a username and strong password for your account. Since eToro is a regulated platform, you must furnish your personal information. This includes your date of birth, full name, home address, and phone number.
Step 2: Deposit Funds
Once you have created your account, you can deposit your funds. eToro accepts several payment methods. This includes credit cards, debit cards, and e-wallets such as PayPal. The minimum deposit you must make to begin trading is $10. However, if you want to use eToro’s copy trading feature, you must deposit $200. Additionally, US-based traders do not have to pay any deposit fee.
Step 3: Select A Trader
The next step is to select a trader. To do this, click on the “Discover” button located on the left side of the screen. Here, you can view different markets and portfolios offered by eToro. Next, click on the “Copy Trader” button to view the list of traders and select the trader whose trading strategy you wish to mirror.
eToro also displays metrics such as historical returns and the risk level assigned to each trader. Additionally, you can filter traders based on your location and markets. Once you have chosen a trader, click on the “Copy” button.
Step 4: Start Copying Trader
After selecting the broker:
- Enter the amount you wish to invest.
- Remember to set a stop-loss before you place the order. You will also have the option of copying all trades or only those placed in the future.
- Once you are done setting the trading parameters, click on the “Copy” button to begin.
You can also visit your eToro portfolio to track the performance of your investment. You can invest more funds, pause your investment, or stop copying trades.
Copy Trading does not amount to investment advice. The value of your investments may go up or down. Your capital is at risk.
Conclusion – Best Algorithmic Trading Platforms
This wraps up our guide on the best algorithmic trading platforms. Remember, when using an algorithmic trading platform, you trust your money with software. This is why you must select a platform that has a proven track record and accurately executes trading orders. The right software can help you profit from the precision of algorithmic trading.
Our pick for the best algorithmic trading platforms is eToro. The eToro brokerage is a proven, top-rated, highly regulated platform allowing you to copy trades of proven investors. The minimum investment required to use its copy trading feature is $100. Additionally, there are no extra fees or commissions involved.
Reviewed and Fact Checked by Wajeeh Khan, Fintech, Blockchain Writer and Investment Analyst.
eToro Copy Trading
- Free Copy Trading of Professional Traders
- Best Algorithmic Trading Platform
- Minimum Deposit only $10
75% of retail investor accounts lose money when trading CFDs with this provider.
eToro is a multi-asset platform which offers both investing in stocks and cryptoassets, as well as trading CFD assets. Please note that CFDs are complex instruments and come with a high risk of losing money rapidly due to leverage. 75% of retail investor accounts lose money when trading CFDs with this provider. You should consider whether you understand how CFDs work, and whether you can afford to take the high risk of losing your money
FAQs on Algorithmic Trading Platforms
Is Algorithmic Trading Legal?
Yes, algorithmic trading is legal. However, several unregulated platforms lure investors with the promise of huge returns. You must do your due diligence when selecting a trading platform. When looking for an algorithmic trading platform, we recommend selecting one that is regulated, like eToro.
Is Algorithmic Trading Profitable?
There are no clear indications that algorithmic trading is more profitable than regular trading. As with any other trading strategy, you must consider the risks involved before investing in any algorithmic trading software. This is why it is prudent to stick to a trading platform that is transparent about its algorithmic trading strategy. You should also select a platform that allows you customization and control over your positions.
What Is Algorithmic Trading?
Algorithmic trading is a trading strategy that automatically executes trading orders based on pre-programmed instructions. Algorithmic trading software considers several variables, such as price, volume, and historical performance, when looking for opportunities in the market.
What Is The Best Algorithmic Trading Platform?
After scouring multiple platforms in our guide, we found eToro to be the best algorithmic trading platform. eToro is a reputed, regulated online platform with over 30 million active users. The platform supports copy trading, allowing you to mirror trades by experienced traders.
How Much Money Do You Need For Algorithmic Trading?
The minimum amount required for algorithmic trading depends on the platform chosen. For example, copy trading on eToro can be accessed by making a $200 deposit. However, most algorithmic trading platforms require a deposit of $250 and above.
How Do You Start Algorithmic Trading?
You can start algorithmic trading by creating an account on a platform like eToro. Verify your identity, deposit $200, and begin trading.